Lake Biwa

 location of Japan’s first freshwater pearl culture operations

Lake Kasumigaura

 located northeast of Tokyo, Lake Kasumigaura is Japan’s second largest freshwater lake and origin of Kasumigaura (Kasumi, Kasumiga) pearls

lantern baskets

baskets used to hold young mollusks when suspended from lines during saltwater pearl culture

longline systems

horizontal lines stretched between buoys and anchored to the bottom at both ends while Chaplets (vertical lines) with baskets or net panels of nucleated mollusks are suspended underwater from the longlines


quantity and quality of light reflected from the surface or just under the surface of a natural or cultured pearl